THE EFFECT OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP, ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND PERFORMANCE: Empirical Findings from Four Public Sector Organizations in the United States Virgin Islands
►Paul L. Flemming
Scholars and practitioners in social sciences have argued that there is some association between leadership and performance, but empirical evidence has yet to prove the effect of leadership, performance and culture on public organizational performance. This study has investigated the effect of transformational leadership styles, organizational culture types and performance in four public sector organizations. The argument that there is no association between the three fundamental pillars of public sector organization: leadership, performance and culture, has become an ongoing debate in social sciences. This study investigated the effect of transformational leadership traits, organizational culture types and performance in four public sector organizations. The objective of this research was to examine the effect of individual leadership traits, and culture types on performance in public organizations. The behavior elements examined in this study were idealized influence behavior, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, individualized consideration, idealized influence and effectiveness. Performance outcomes variables were hiring decisions, performance measurements, job satisfaction, and structured reward system respectfully. The cultural variables used were clan culture, adhocracy culture, market culture, and hierarchal culture. This study utilized a survey designed and implemented a quantitative methodology. The analysis used primary data produced by the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) to administer on 200 respondents from four of the largest public sector organizations in the United State Virgin Islands to examine the relationship of transformational leadership, organizational performance and organizational culture. The responses were scaled and coded to enable the segmentation of the data into dependent and independent variables based on the leadership, performance and culture variables. The study utilized the multiple regression models and correlation statistical analyses to determine the degree of commonality among the components. The results showed that while transformational leadership were strongly correlated with organizational performance with consistency and adaptability, organizational culture had a positive significant relationship with performance management practices. The study concluded that transformational leadership and organizational culture have positive effects on facilitating performance in mature public sector organizations, and recommended transformational leadership styles to actualize the culture types best suited in public sector organizations.
Keywords: Leadership traits, Organizational culture, Performance, Public sector
JEL Classification: D23, M41, L25, L32
USE OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES BY ZIMBABWEAN TOUR OPERATORS IN BUSINESS OPERATIONS
►Shepherd Nyaruwata, Dr. Edmund Marunda and Dr. Nyasha Kaseke
Information communication technologies (ICTs) are a tool that is used by a large number of stakeholders in the tourism industry for product distribution and transacting. This is a result of the development of technology and a response to changes in customer purchasing behaviour. The study aimed at determining the ICT adoption and use by Zimbabwean tour operators. The qualitative research method was used through face –to- face interviews with key informants from the tourism industry. The study revealed that the majority of tour operators had not adopted information communication technologies in their business operations. This was a result of a number of factors for example, lack of knowledge about ICTs, limited information communication technologies infrastructure in the country and lack of appropriate government policies on ICTs. The study concluded that if the tour operators continue to use the current outdated business models the enterprises will gradually decline and close down. It is recommended that the government implements training programmes that are aimed at improving the tour operators’ knowledge about the role that ICTs play as part of a business strategy as well as improving their general knowledge about the tourism industry. The study further recommended that local tour operators seek partnership with international tour operators selling holiday packages to Zimbabwe. This will help the tour operators to lip-frog the “digital divide” at the same time giving them a chance for long term survival.
Keywords: ICTs, Tour Operators, Adoption, Digital Divide, Tourism Industry.
JEL Classification: L86, L83, Z32
MOBBING IN A CROSS-SECTIONAL NATIONAL SAMPLE: The Turkish Case
►Jale Minibas-Poussard, PhD and Meltem İdiğ-Çamuroğlu, PhD
In this empirical study we examined mobbing settings and outcomes with a data set from a cross-sectional occupational sample collected in ten cities in Turkey (N=853). The prevalence of mobbing in this sample was 23%, while victimization was 17% only. The most frequent aggressive behaviors were threats to the victim’s personal and occupational reputation such as having been denied a praise or promotion, having had one's contributions ignored by others, having been given unreasonable workloads above competence or simple and meaningless work below competence. Perpetrators were mostly superiors. Analyses revealed that oppressive management was the most influential factor for mobbing in work environment.
Keywords: Mobbing, Individual Behavior, Organizational Behavior
JEL Classification: C91, C92, D22
PURCHASING INFLUENCE FOR UNAUTHORIZED ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCT CONSUMERS IN NEW YORK
►Dr. Christian Akaeze and Dr. Nana Shaibu Akaeze
Product piracy inhibits creative talents, innovation and significantly affects the economic benefits for original creators of entertainment ideas and products. Based on Theory of Planned Behaviors, the purpose of this qualitative multiple-case study was to explore some consumer behaviors which influence purchases of pirate entertainment products in New York City. Data were collected from 50 participants who have purchased pirated entertainment products for atleast 2 years. Data analysis involved thematic analysis. The 3 emergent themes in final report related to Personal, Cultural, and Social Influences on entertainment consumers purchases of pirated products. The findings could result in strategies for managers to inhibit piracy and alleviate damaging effects to sales and profitability of entertainment products. This study is beneficial to the entertainment practitioners, academics, managers and policy makers.